The causes of uremia:
Chronic urinary tract obstruction, such as kidney stones, bilateral ureteral calculi, urinary tract stenosis, prostatic hypertrophy, tumor, etc.. Secondary to systemic diseases, such as hypertension and arteriosclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Henoch Schonlein purpura nephritis, diabetes, gout and so on, it is also the cause of uremia. Congenital kidney diseases, such as polycystic kidney disease, hereditary nephritis, and various congenital renal tubular dysfunction, etc.. Other causes of uremia, such as the use of nephrotoxic drugs, have shown that about 25% of patients with renal failure are associated with nephrotoxicity and blindness in weight loss. The prevalence of uremia caused by HIV infection is rising, which accounts for 1% of the uremia inducing factors.
Each type of primary glomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, acute nephritis, membranous nephritis, focal glomerulosclerosis, if not active treatment, eventually become the cause of uremia. Kidney disease is the main cause of uremia, and the final outcome of all chronic kidney diseases will be uremia. Among them, chronic nephritis is the primary cause of uremia, in the cause of uremia in the disease, chronic glomerulonephritis accounted for 55.7%.
What are the early symptoms of uremia?
Symptoms of the nervous system: symptoms of the nervous system are the main symptoms of uremia. In the early stage of uremia, patients often suffer from dizziness, headache, fatigue, memory loss and other symptoms. With the aggravation of the disease, irritability, muscle tremors and convulsions can occur, and finally develop into apathy, lethargy and coma.
Digestive system symptoms: the earliest symptom of digestive system in patients with uremia is loss of appetite or indigestion; anorexia, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea may occur when the condition is aggravated. The occurrence of these symptoms may be the intestinal bacteria and urease resolve urea into ammonia, ammonia to stimulate gastric mucosal inflammation and multiple superficial ulcer etc.. Patients often complicated with gastrointestinal bleeding. In addition, nausea and vomiting are also associated with dysfunction of the central nervous system.
Skin symptoms: skin pruritus is a common symptom in patients with uremia, may be toxic products of receptors in the skin irritation caused by; others think that with secondary hyperparathyroidism, because after parathyroidectomy, the pain relieved immediately. In addition, the patient's skin is dry, desquamation and yellowish brown. The change of skin color was thought to be caused by the increase of urine pigment, but it was proved by the absorption spectrophotometer that melanin is the main pigment in the skin. In the exposed parts of the skin, slight contusion can cause skin ecchymosis. Because of the high concentration of urea in sweat, there is a white crystal of urea at the mouth of sweat gland. It is called urea cream.