the right amount of heat supply
The average daily supply of 125.4 - 146 thousand and 300 kJ / kg body weight, in order to ensure the rational use of protein and amino acids, and reduce the decomposition of tissue proteins. Should eat some food containing high heat and containing protein is relatively low, such as potatoes, yam, sweet potato, taro, lotus, water chestnut, pumpkin, lotus root starch, vermicelli, rice flour, water chestnut powder replacement, significantly reduce the decomposition of protein. When the food intake is reduced, it may be appropriate to add some sugar or vegetable oil to increase heat energy, to meet the basic needs of the body.
2, limit protein intake
After the decline of renal function, the excretion of protein metabolites appeared. Therefore, to reduce the burden on the kidneys, it is necessary to limit the intake of protein, so that it is controlled in a level commensurate with the renal function. In order to improve the utilization rate of protein, the meat, milk, eggs, fish and other foods rich in high quality protein should be used to make it more than 50% of the total protein quality. Cereals contain high quality protein, in the compensatory period should be appropriate to reduce the staple food, with some of the protein containing low starch food instead. No dialysis patients, control the protein intake of 0.6-0.8g/kg/d, at the same time, to add essential amino acids or alpha keto acid to the diet, to prevent hypoproteinemia caused by long-term intake of low protein diet. In patients with hemodialysis, protein intake was 1.2g/kg/d.
3, pay attention to low salt diet
To maintain a low salt diet, no salt itself on kidney damage, but eat more salt, drinking water will correspondingly increase, increased blood volume, edema, hypertension and heart load condition, so there is edema, hypertension patients to low salt diet, especially with edema, to 3 grams per day is appropriate. Accompanied by uncontrollable hypertension or heart failure, oliguria, severe edema of patients due to salt or strict diet, generally every day not more than 1-2g; regular hemodialysis patients, and normal urine without complications can be treated as a normal diet.
4, limit the intake of water
The amount of urine of chronic renal failure patients to reduce emissions, through the mouth into the fluid retention in the body, resulting in swelling of the body, blood pressure, and edema, at this time, must limit the intake of liquid, usually oral intake of liquid volume is approximately equal to the quantity of urine day plus 500ml.
5, beware of high potassium food
Renal insufficiency, the kidney to reduce potassium excretion, the occurrence of hyperkalemia, potassium can inhibit the heartbeat, severe cases can lead to cardiac arrest, life-threatening. Therefore, when renal insufficiency, should be strictly in accordance with the level of potassium control potassium intake. Blood potassium normal, 24h urine volume in 1000ml above, can not have too much control. Elevated serum potassium, 24h urine volume even more than 1000ml, should also limit the intake of potassium, less than 1.5g a day. Blood potassium, urine output, should strictly control the intake of potassium. Potassium mainly by food intake, the urinary excretion by the kidney, renal dysfunction, will result in decreased excretion of potassium increased, so food should eat high potassium. Such as: bananas, oranges, MSG, soy sauce, mustard, potatoes, mushrooms, fungus, seaweed, jujube, lotus seeds, almonds, ham, scallops, small shrimp etc..
6, low phosphorus high calcium diet
Patients with chronic renal failure with low calcium and high phosphorus in calcium supplement in addition to drugs, also need to supplement in the diet, milk, lean meat, egg whites are rich in calcium, also should avoid intake of high phosphorus foods, such as fish, meat, rice, chicken, walnuts, peanuts, sunflower seeds, etc..
7, avoid high purine food
Such as animal offal, seafood, spinach, mushrooms, beer also bogey, which can reduce the excretion of uric acid.
8, eat spicy spicy food
Such as pepper, pepper, pepper, curry, garlic bolt and so easy to "get angry", five spice powder, aniseed, coriander and other Chinese toon, "objects", because these foods may cause high blood pressure, cause throat inflammation, can also cause allergies.
9, fat intake
Patients with renal failure are prone to abnormal blood lipids, triglycerides tend to rise, so avoid high-fat diet diet, eat less greasy food
Reminder: chronic renal failure patients should be added vitamin B group (B, B6, B2) of vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin D, trace elements, mainly iron supplements, vitamin A in the blood of patients with chronic renal failure and the increase of the concentration of vitamin A is toxic to the kidney, the taboo of.