Among nephrological diseases share acute pathology is not more than ¼. This is largely due to the fact that very often diseases occur in secret or with little noticeable clinic. Therefore, Chronic inflammation of the kidney is one of the first places among all nephrological pathologies.
Anatomy and physiology of the kidney
The kidneys are paired organs. Under normal conditions, the development of the body, there are two bean-shaped organs located in the lumbar region. More precisely - the kidneys are located on either side of the spine between the last two thoracic vertebrae and 2 lumbar vertebrae.kidney anatomy
The internal structure of the body is similar to the rest of the parenchymal organs. But only in the "architecture" of the plan. It includes the following structures:
1. Capsule. Almost completely covers the body. The thickness of a few millimeters. The capsule consists of connective collagen fibers. Between which the nerve fibers. It is their irritation gives the sensation of pain. The other kidney structures, which they say "do not hurt."
2. renal parenchyma. It is the main body of the fabric. There are distinguished medulla and cortex. In cortical sectional looks lighter. It is located directly beneath the capsule. But in addition, it gives a little "spines" deep into organ. They surround a part of the brain substance. The very same medulla is located behind the cortex in the form of so-called renal pyramids. They have their bases directed towards the capsule. The tops of the pyramids directed to the central portion of the inner side of the kidneys.
3. Renal sinus and pelvis. This cavity located in the middle of the inner edge of the body. These include kidney calyx, which open into a large cavity called a wash basin.
In the cortex located calf nephrons - structural and functional unit of the kidneys. They determine all the important functions of the authority. This isolation, maintenance of homeostasis, the regulation of blood oncotic and osmotic pressure. Erythropoietin formation occurs not only in the nephron cells, but in many other parenchymal cells.
Briefly, the nephron consists of the following components:
Glomerulus. It is the choroid plexus. It is formed by arterioles break into many small branches. Each of them is surrounded by a basement membrane and podocyte - specific cells involved in the plasma filtration.
Bowman's capsule-Shymlanskaya. Connective cavity in the form of glasses. It occurs delivery of substances undergoing filtration membrane and detained podocytes.
Tubules. It carried thereon expectoration primary urine (so-called filtered part of the plasma) and the formation of secondary urine by reverse reabsorption of some substances.
Processes renal physiology are somehow related to the functioning nephrons. It can be described as follows.
The blood of renal artery enters the kidney vessels. Those, in turn, penetrate into a ball. Per day through the nephrons of the kidneys goes up to 2 thousand liters of blood. Glomerular filtration are carried out. In the capsule passes most of the plasma with dissolved electrolytes small proteins (20 nanometers or less in diameter), lipids, carbohydrates and products of metabolism. The remainder of the plasma containing large proteins and blood cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes platelets) goes into a vessel called enduring for what it collects blood from the capsule and exits therefrom.
Tubules on this primary urine moves in the collecting ducts. By way carried reabsorption (reuptake) lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins and electrolytes portion. The remainder of the plasma contains only ions and metabolic products. It's called secondary urine. According to the collecting ducts urine enters the renal calyx, and from there into the pelvis. From her urine comes out of the ureter.The structure of the nephron
Inflammatory kidney disease
It is important! The primary inflammatory renal diseases include glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis. Only they can give chronic forms. From these reasons diseases envy treatment of chronic inflammation of the kidneys.
Glomerulonephritis - inflammation of the nephrons. It occurs due to sedimentation of circulating immune complexes and antibodies to basement membrane. This leads to the development of aseptic (without involvement of microorganisms) inflammation.
Violated the filtration ability of the nephrons. As part of the primary urine appear larger proteins and blood cells. And they are known are not subject to the absorption of the tubules of the nephron.
Glomerulonephritis is a classic example of an autoimmune inflammation. Antibody formation occurs in the cells of the defense system at a streptococcal infection. According to this development of glomerulonephritis classically begins after 2-4 weeks after streptococcal infection.
Pyelonephritis - kidney inflammation of the urinary tract: calyces and pelvis. Direct lesions nephrons occurs. But the disease breaks the normal flow of urine. Therefore, sooner or later, by increasing the pressure inside the tubules begin to suffer and nephrons. Occurrence pyelonephritis associated with an ascending infection of the bladder and urethra.
In the treatment of chronic renal inflammation used antibiotics, anticoagulants and diuretics. Since they are, respectively, have antimicrobial, antitromboobrazuyuschy and diuretic effects.
inflammation of the nephrons