Nephrectomy - a surgical intervention, suggesting a kidney removal. Nephrectomy is performed at various renal pathologies, or when their work anatomic integrity can not be recovered, and formed a high risk of complications manifestations.
For such states should be included:
Gunshot wounds, promoting crushing of kidney tissue.
Closed kidney injury causing serious destruction of the body.
Urolithiasis pathology, which is complemented by pyonephrosis hydronephrosis or kidney.
Tumor formation in the kidney.
Often, surgery is performed to remove the older kidneys due to the age characteristics of kidney dysfunction.
Nephrectomy - it is quite difficult technically operation, when there is the risk of bleeding from blood vessels in the kidney. Another complication of such manipulation may be a trauma of the peritoneum, the violation of the integrity of the abdominal portion, as the kidney is located right behind it. In addition because of anatomical proximity during surgery accidental injury of pancreas can occur.
Changes in a human body in the elderly often causes the formation of kidney failure, where the protein is retained in the body, so the inner vascular wall is damaged. With causes accumulation of cholesterol and formation of atherosclerotic deposits over time this process
Preparation for surgery
Before any surgical intervention is necessary to organize blood tests and urine tests. Of blood tests are considered the most important overall analysis, the level of clotting, sugar and biochemical analysis. Just before surgery the patient visits the anesthesiologist.
Contraindications to surgery are severe pathology of the patient, various additional defeat of the organism, when increases the risk of complications during surgery and afterwards.
Nephrectomy was performed under general anesthesia.
The patient is placed on the operating table, a healthy side by placing it under a special roller. To fix the position of applied adaptation of the operating table.
The doctor gets access to the kidney by an oblique incision in the back. Thus layers dissected skin, subcutaneous tissue, and adipose capsule. The surgeon then reaches the kidney, fat contained inside the capsule
After isolation of the kidney made dressings and crossing her legs. Initially ligated ureter, then stand renal artery and Vienna, which are tied and intersect. After complete intersection renal pedicle performed kidney removal.
At the end of surgery, the doctor examines the bed, where the kidney was located previously, stops bleeding, sets the bed drain pipe layers and sews up the wound, applying a sterile dressing on top.
Meals at the removal of the kidney
When you remove one of his kidneys is important to observe certain rules of nutrition especially for people in old age. It is necessary to control the intake of protein, patients often assigned a diet with a low content of protein in the diet.
It is also recommended to reduce salt intake, and food is best to add some salt directly into the plate before use, not during cooking - so you can significantly reduce the amount of salt consumed.
In the absence of edema and hypertension abutment recommended drink plenty of fluids to accelerate harmful compounds from the body.
After nephrectomy, the person may develop certain complications in health. As a rule, postoperative complications observed in only 2% of people. Specific postoperative complications include myocardial infarction, impaired blood flow in the brain, heart failure, thromboembolism, pulmonary inflammation, etc.
Prevention of these complications is to implement a sick complex of respiratory gymnastics exercises, early recovery activity of the patient, holding the lower extremities using bandages elastic bandages in order to reduce the risk of thromboembolism formation.
Occasionally when traumatizing during surgery pancreas during postoperative pancreatitis can occur - the inflammatory process in the pancreas. Another non-specific complication of kidney removal becomes intestinal paresis.
This process in which the reduced peristalsis in the intestine, which is manifested delayed discharge of gas, bloating, lack chair. Preventive measure of deviation - is the early activation of the patient, because there is intestinal self-massage during walking and breathing exercises stimulate bowel activity.
To prevent any complications in the postoperative period is necessary to periodically visit a doctor and check the functioning of the process of the second kidney.