What is malaria?
Malaria is a parasitic disease caused by the infection of the human malaria parasite, mainly by female mosquito bites. It is characterized by the intermittent cold war, high heat, and the subsequent release of sweat.
What is the etiology of malaria?
There are four species of plasmodium that can infect humans, including plasmodium vivax, plasmodium falciparum, malaria plasmodium and plasmodium falciparum. The life history of the malaria parasite consists of two phases, the asexual reproduction stage of the riparate in the human body and the sexual reproduction of the anopheles.
What is the epidemiology of malaria?
Include: 1, the source of infection: mainly malaria and plasmodium. Transmission channel: the vector is female anopheles, the mosquito bites the human transmission, a few cases can be caused by the transfusion of the blood and mother and child of the malaria parasite. People are susceptible to malaria: people are susceptible to malaria and can gain a degree of immunity after infection, but not for long. There is no cross immunity between all forms of malaria. Popular features: malaria is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions, followed by temperate zones. This is mainly because the epidemic of the disease is closely related to the ecological environment of the media.
What are the symptoms of malaria?
The incubation period for vivax and oviform malaria is 13 to 15 days, and 3 days of malaria is 24 to 30 days, and falciparum is 7 to 12 days.
The typical symptoms of malaria are sudden cold war, high fever and heavy sweating. Chill for 20 minutes to 1 hour, then the temperature rising rapidly, can reach more than 40 °, usually accompanied by headache, body aches, fatigue, but conscious. Fever usually lasts two to six hours. After that, a large amount of sweating occurs, and the temperature plummets for about 30 minutes to an hour, while the patient feels better, but often feels drained and dry. There is a lull between the two episodes of malaria, and the early stages of the patient's interval are not regular, but they gradually become a rule after several episodes. The intermittent periods of vivax and oviform malaria are about 48 hours and three days of malaria are about 72 hours. Falciparum malaria is about 36 to 48 hours. Repeated attacks cause large amounts of red blood cell damage, which can lead to different levels of anemia and splenomegaly.
Brain type malaria is a serious clinical type of falciparum malaria, even in vivax. The main clinical manifestations are severe headache and fever, often with different levels of consciousness. Hypoglycemia and cytokines may also play a role in the occurrence of the disease, which is linked to the clogging of the microvessels in the infected red blood cells. The occurrence of hypoglycemia is related to the consumption of lower blood sugar in patients with less food and more energy consumption during the cold war and high heat, and the disease of the malarial disease is more dangerous and the fatality rate is high.
In the short term, falciparum malarials are damaged by a large number of red blood cells infected with the parasite, which can cause kidney damage and even acute kidney failure.
What are the complications of malaria?
Dark urine hot: see more at p. falciparum, clinical manifestation to hurry up the chills, fever, and urine lumbago, soy sauce samples, acute anemia and jaundice, and even acute renal insufficiency. The light person is conscious, the heavy person consciousness obstacle is blurred, tic. If not treated promptly, can die within a few days.
Malaria nephropathy: clinically high blood pressure, proteinuria, hematuria and edema. Depending on the performance, it can be pided into acute glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome.
What are the problems with malaria prognosis?
The case fatality rate of malaria differences because of different insect infection, vivax malaria and ovate, 3 patients with malaria case fatality rate is very low, and higher mortality of patients with plasmodium falciparum. In patients with cerebral malaria case fatality rate of 9% ~ 9%, and can appear a variety of sequelae after illness, hemiplegia, aphasia, strabismus, blindness, cerebellar ataxia and mental abnormality, etc.
How can malaria be prevented?
Manage the source of infection: it is mainly a sound outbreak report, a cure for malaria sufferers and the malaria parasite.
Cut the route of transmission: the main thing is to kill the anopheles mosquitoes and prevent them from biting. Eliminating mosquito larvae breeding sites and widespread use of insect repellent. Personal protection can be avoided by using a repellent or mosquito net.
Protect vulnerable people: drug prevention is the more commonly used measure. A preventive treatment, which helps reduce the risk of infection in high-risk groups once a week, may be appropriate for healthy and foreign populations in the areas of high malaria. In adults, chloroquine is administered by 0.5 mg. In the popular areas of chloroquine malaria, it is possible to use the 0.25 g of methyl fluoroquinol, and the choice of the ethyl pyrimidine 25mg and the polyxicycline 0.2 g. Pregnant women and children should take chloroquine for prevention.