Generally speaking, all factors that can cause glomerular filtration membrane damage can lead to nephrotic syndrome. According to the pathogeny of nephritic syndrome, it can be pided into primary and secondary, the diagnosis of the former mainly depends on excluding secondary nephrotic syndrome. The etiology of primary nephrotic syndrome is unknown, the results of the study suggest that immune mechanism, especially the changes of cellular immunity and possible pathogenesis of the occurrence of change in lipid metabolism, blood coagulation factor and proteinuria is also involved in this disease. Common causes of secondary nephrotic syndrome are the following.
The etiology of secondary nephrotic syndrome: infection of bacterial infection in post streptococcal glomerulonephritis, bacterial endocarditis, shunt nephritis, leprosy, syphilis, tuberculosis, chronic pyelonephritis with reflux nephropathy; virus infection in hepatitis B, cytomegalovirus, infection of mononuclear cells in human immunodeficiency virus, parasite infection in filariasis increased; malaria, toxoplasmosis, worms, schistosomiasis. Drug allergy or poisoning, organic or inorganic organic mercury, gold and silver, penicillamine, two heroin, probenecid, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, trimethadione, drugs such as bee sting; snake venom; allergic pollen, vaccine, anti toxin. Tumor, lung, stomach, colon, mammary gland, ovary, thyroid gland, leukemia, lymphoma, Willm tumor, etc.. Systemic disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease, dermatomyositis, Sjogren syndrome, Henoch Schonlein purpura, amyloidosis, etc.. Metabolic diseases, diabetes mellitus, thyroid diseases. Hereditary disease congenital nephrotic syndrome, Alport syndrome, Fabry disease, sickle cell anemia, nail patella syndrome - fat, malnutrition, familial nephrotic syndrome etc.. Other eclampsia, chronic rejection of renal allograft, malignant renal sclerosis, renal artery stenosis, etc..
In secondary nephrotic syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetic nephropathy, and anaphylactoid purpura are the most common. This article focuses on primary nephrotic syndrome. The common histopathological changes in children with primary nephrotic syndrome are minor disease variants. In adults, focal segmental nephritis, membranous nephropathy, and minimal lesion type are present.