Nephrotic syndrome is a group of clinically similar symptoms, rather than an independent disease. The main clinical manifestations of a large number of proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, edema, hyperlipidemia. Cause a lot of causes of nephrotic syndrome. Summary can be pided into two categories. Namely: primary nephrotic syndrome and secondary nephrotic syndrome.
Primary and secondary nephrotic syndrome, although there is a common clinical manifestations, but in the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment vary widely. So both must be further differential diagnosis.
First, primary nephrotic syndrome
Primary nephrotic syndrome. For the primary glomerular disease caused by, such as minor lesions of kidney disease, membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative nephropathy, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerular sclerosis.
- (1) small lesions of kidney disease, more common in children and adolescents. Onset concealed, naked hematuria
- (2) membranous nephropathy, the general incidence of 35 years of age, the onset of occult, slow development of the disease, prone to renal vein thrombosis, gross hematuria rare.
- (3) membranous proliferative nephropathy, frequently before the age of 30, acute onset, almost all patients have microscopic hematuria, renal function was progressive decline, about 1/3 of patients with high blood pressure.
- (4) mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, occur in adolescents, occult onset, but also acute attack, accompanied by hematuria, microscopic hematuria-based, and mild to moderate hypertension.
- (5) focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, more common in young people, most patients are almost occult disease, the most performance of nephrotic syndrome, followed by microscopic hematuria, renal dysfunction.
Second, secondary nephrotic syndrome
There are many causes of secondary nephrotic syndrome, such as systemic diseases, metabolic diseases, allergic diseases, infectious diseases, nephrotoxic substances, malignancies, hereditary diseases, pregnancy toxemia and chronic rejection of renal transplantation and many more. But only a few common clinical, such as systemic lupus erythematosus kidney, diabetic nephropathy, renal amyloidosis, allergic purpura nephritis and so on more common.
- (1) systemic lupus erythematosus nephropathy common in young women, often manifested as multiple tube damage, such as joint pain, fever, facial butterfly erythema, liver and cardiovascular disease. Blood can be found in lupus erythematosus cells, plasma globulin was significantly increased.
- (2) diabetic nephropathy in patients with longer history of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, and kidney damage is often parallel.
- (3) renal amyloidosis occurs mainly in middle-aged men and women, often have chronic inflammation or chronic suppurative disease lesions.
- (4) purpura nephritis mostly in adolescents, the incidence and respiratory infections, can be more common in winter, hematuria is allergic purpura kidney damage the most common clinical manifestations.
The above is the introduction of the type of nephrotic syndrome, if you want to learn more about the type of nephrotic syndrome, please consult our online kidney disease experts.