Prominent features of nephrotic syndrome in children. Children are highly swollen limbs, head, trunk may have swollen, especially loose parts is more obvious, such as the eyelids, the boy scrotum can swollen like a light bulb, and visceral serous cavity effusion, such as pleural effusion and ascites.
Edema serious skin thin and translucent, slightly damaged skin, it will ooze water. Edema affects the blood circulation, so that local resistance decreased, easy to infection
Nephrotic syndrome, urine contains large amounts of protein, urine routine examination of urine protein found up to 24 hours to + + + + + + +, urinary protein excretion increased.
Blood tests can be found in plasma albumin decreased, the normal white, globulin ratio from 1 to 1.5 to 0.5, the proportion of occurrence of inverted plasma cholesterol. Some children in the medial thigh and upper arm, abdomen and chest and pregnant women similar skin white lines or purple lines, urine volume decreased significantly.
Due to the long lost in the urine can appear a lot of protein, protein malnutrition, dry hair yellowing, dry skin, hair follicle keratosis, finger (toe) a white stripes, growth retardation, anemia and infection. Some children with hematuria and hypertension.
Nephrotic syndrome, longer course, easy to repeated attacks. The greatest danger is secondary infection, such as skin erysipelas, intestinal infection, pneumonia, primary peritonitis and septicemia, any secondary infection can cause death.
1: general diet without diet, protein should be increased appropriately, but had azotemia of edema, hypertension should be limited; children should be sodium restriction, severe edema should be restricted to the water.
2 if there should be no damage to the infection, renal antibiotics (such as penicillin). 3: oral diuretic hydrochlorothiazide or spironolactone and furosemide can be used when necessary.
4 transfusion of plasma and blood protein can improve serum protein and reduce edema
5: hormone therapy often have oral prednisone, diuretic swelling, reduce proteinuria, the full amount of 3 ~ 4 times, after 4 weeks for, such as urine protein in 7 ~ 10 days for 3 times were negative (i.e. urine protein free), it is the next day the full amount in the morning a single service, so by 4 weeks, every 2 ~ 4 weeks reduction time, until the withdrawal. The total course of 4 6 months. If 4 weeks before the start of treatment of urinary protein did not disappear, to prolong the course, can not be changed into every one ton service, should continue according to the original dose by 4 week, if the urine protein in 8 weeks for 3 times (7 ~ 10 days) were negative, then it can be changed to the morning after a ton service, and then 4 weeks later, every 2 to 4 weeks of reduction time, until the withdrawal. The total course extension for 9 to 12 months.
6 when the hormone is ineffective or has toxic side effects, it can be treated with immunosuppressive agents (such as meglumine, or butyric acid, nitrogen mustard, or nitrogen mustard)
7 Chinese medicine treatment: spleen deficiency with Buzhong Yiqi occasion five Ling San (Radix Codonopsis, Atractylodes rhizome, tangerine peel, tuckahoe, Polyporus, Alisma, corn, Magnolia, Chen gourd, licorice). Spleen kidney yang deficiency in spleen decoction combined with tetrandrine Huang Decoction (monkshood, ginger, Poria, Atractylodes, anti. Yam, Radix Morindae Officinalis, Cistanche, Xianlingpi).