For children with nephrotic syndrome, parents must pay attention to the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome in children. Can be found early, is conducive to the treatment. So, what are the symptoms of children with nephrotic syndrome? Let Kang Xiaobian to introduce you.
The symptoms of children with nephrotic syndrome
1, children with edema, edema degree without a dentability, lower extremity edema. Edema due to gravity change, long lie or early in the morning to the eyelid, occipital, sacral edema, edema of lower extremity after activity obviously. Severe edema affected body, edema of scrotum or pleural and peritoneal effusion. Even a pericardial effusion. Highly edema skin shiny, skin thinning, even white stripes (found in the abdomen, buttocks and thighs). Serous cavity effusion often produce compression symptoms, such as chest tightness, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing. Even to the milky white chest, ascites, edema of lipid containing emulsion. With the severity and disease has nothing to do with hypoalbuminemia, but was not close. Minimalchange patients often showed a high degree of systemic edema, membranous nephropathy and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with lower extremity edema. Moderate edema is a common glomerular disease The pathogenesis of a stage performance significantly, some patients or 1 months to 2 years can fade. Edema is often related with sodium intake. Urine volume decreased.
2, proteinuria, hematuria in children with nephrotic syndrome syndrome in children may contain a lot of protein, children more than 50mg/ (kg.d).
3, hypoproteinemia and malnutrition, long-term loss of a large number of proteins lead to malnutrition. Patients with sparse hair and yellow skin, simply, white light, such as muscle wasting and malnutrition. In hypoalbuminemia, other plasma protein concentration also changed. The smaller molecular weight protein decreased and the charge albumin and similar, is missing from the urine. Low serum albumin and serum albumin concentration is lower than 25g/L.
4, hyperlipidemia, mainly because of hypoproteinemia caused liver cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids increased three, its catabolism decreased, plasma osmotic pressure decreased the important factors causing hyperlipidemia.
5, secondary infection, immune function disorder, a lot of protein loss, malnutrition and other factors easily secondary infection. Due to the lack of complement factor B, serum opsonic activity loss and immunoglobulin in kidney increased catabolism and loss from urine, reduce anti infection ability makes the body, so easy to common secondary infection. For respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, primary peritonitis, sepsis, intestinal infection, pneumonia and so on.
6, hypercoagulable state, most of the patients in a hypercoagulable state, and thrombosis. Many scholars believe that platelet dysfunction is caused by chronic immune complex glomerulonephritis damage, capillary coagulation is the leading cause of irreversible glomerular damage. The hypercoagulable state can accelerate the blood vessels in thrombus formation, glomerular fibrin deposition, renal function further deterioration. In the process of NS, if the occurrence of renal vein thrombosis, make kidney congestion more serious kidney volume increases, the deterioration of renal function, edema and proteinuria aggravate.
7, renal insufficiency, patients with nephrotic syndrome may occur in renal insufficiency. Renal insufficiency has two types, namely, acute and chronic. Acute manifestations of acute nephritis syndrome, and prone to acute renal failure. More minimalchange renal lesions and mild acute renal failure in highly edema or lesions significantly active, often associated with renal dysfunction, serum urea nitrogen and creatinine increased, the edema subsided, then returned to normal. The chronic glomerulonephritis patients even if edema subsided completely, renal function cannot return to normal. The majority of small disease type NS on cortical hormone sensitive. Renal function is normal, generally does not occur in chronic renal insufficiency. Membranous nephropathy early disease with normal renal function, and then slowly decline. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis type patients, most of that time in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction. Clinical manifestations can be onset Emergency can be slow. The onset can have a respiratory infection or skin infections, or without any cause. Severe edema of systemic the disease with prominent symptoms, urine volume decreased. Part of children with hematuria (hematuria), some children have high blood pressure, some patients can have severe edema with pleural effusion and ascites.
Extended reading: the complications of nephrotic syndrome in children
1, infection, infection is a common complication of nephrotic syndrome and death. Common infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella bacteria as a result of, and can also be issuing Pneumocystis carinii infection. Peritoneal, lung, skin infections often involved. Because of the humoral, cellular immunodeficiency and complement factors. Ascites become medium, the use of steroids and immunosuppressants, factors that decrease in immune function is also induced by infection.
2, hypovolemic shock and acute renal failure
(1), hypovolemic shock: the blood of children with low capacity, a fragile state, if there is vomiting, diarrhea, lack of intake, infection and other factors, prone to hypovolemic shock. If the long-term large doses of hormones, once stopped, there is "adrenal crisis".
(2), acute renal failure: due to the low blood volume, renal interstitial edema, renal tubular obstruction, acute renal vein thrombosis (RVT) and other factors can cause pre renal, renal, postrenal acute renal failure.
3, hypercoagulability and thrombosis, when patients with sudden pain (costovertebral angle tenderness), hematuria, renal dysfunction and hypertension should be highly suspected of venous thrombosis. The artery may also occur thromboembolic complications, the incidence rate was 8.5% ~ 44%, such as the femoral vein, pulmonary artery, femoral artery, mesenteric artery, cerebral artery, coronary artery, leg thrombophlebitis.
4, renal function disorder, appear a variety of material transport barriers. Such as glycosuria, aminoaciduria, urinary potassium increased, urinary concentrating function decline.