This is the common complications and the main reason of causing death .According to the 1984 international pediatric kidney disease research organization statistics ,directly or indirectly deaths for infection account for 70% of children with kidney disease death .Infection is also the reason and guide of causing the state of nephrotic syndrome repeated or aggravated .
2.Hypercoagulable state and thromboembolism complications
The coagulation and fibrinolytic system in the body will have some changes when occur nephrotic syndrome :
1)Fibrinogen increase ;
2)The Ⅴ、Ⅷ clotting factors in the plasma will increase ;
3)Antithrombin Ⅲ decline ;
4) The activity of plasma plasminogen decline ;
5)The quantity of blood platelet increase ,which the adhesion and gathered force increase .Thus will cause hypercoagulability and occur thromboembolism complications of which the renal vein thrombosis as the main characteristic symptom in clinical .For acute patients will show suddenly occur eyelid blood urine and abdominal pain ,when checking there will be ridge rib angle tenderness and kidney area mass ; for bilateral patients will have acute renal function decline .
3.Metabolic disorders of calcium and vitamin D
When it occurs pediatric nephrotic syndrome ,the vitamin D binding protein(VDBP ,molecular weight 59000) in blood will lose from the urine ;vitamin D deficiency will affect the absorption of intestinal calcium and cause hyperparathyroidism .The clinical symptoms including hypocalcemia 、cycle of vitamin D deficiency 、poor bone calcification .
Due to the low plasma-albumin、decreased plasma colloid osmotic pressure ,the pediatric nephrotic syndrome commonly have the symptoms of hypovolemia and due to part of the patients avoid the salt improper ,when the rapid body fluid lose(such as nausea、diarrhea、a large dosage of diuresis application 、large-volume paracentesis and so on) will appear different degrees of hypovolemia symptoms ,such as body position of low blood disease ,renal before nitrogen mass even go into shock .
5.Acute renal function decrease
Temporary mild nitrogen qualitative hematic disease is not uncommon in pediatric nephrotic syndrome .The reason why it occur acute renal function decrease are :
1)Serious renal interstitium edema ,the glomerular is blocked by protein cast so that the pressure of the renal capsule and the proximal small tube static increase ,however ,the glomerular filtration rate reduce ;
2)hypovolemia improper necrosis ;
3)Simultaneous bilateral renal thrombosis ;
4)Renal tubular interstitial lesions caused by drugs .
6.Kidney tubules dysfunction
The symptoms including glycosuria 、aminoaciduria 、urine lost phosphorus and potassium 、the concentrating function deficiency .
Patients with continue high blood fat will happen atherosclerosis .Involving the coronary arteries will appear chest distress 、angina pectoris and electrocardiogram changes and even death .
Children patients will occur headache 、tic 、visual disturbance and other neurological symptoms .It may be caused by hypertensive encephalopathy 、cerebral edema 、dilution hyponatremia 、hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia .