Nephrotic syndrome onset can be acute, slow, more common in children and adolescents. Often in the upper respiratory tract infection, skin infection, or tired, cold after the onset of edema. The first symptom often showed systemic edema, acupressure has serious depression. The formation of serous effusion, hydrothorax, ascites, subcutaneous tear lines. Severe edema often accompanied by oliguria, elevated blood pressure, mild azotemia. Daily urine protein excretion than 3.5G, serious up to tens of grams. A large number of protein loss results, lead to decreased plasma protein, especially for albumin is generally lower than 30g / L, 10g / L., serious problems appear at the same time plasma lipid concentration increased. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly increased. The patients showed weakness, loss of appetite, susceptible to infection.
The clinical manifestation of primary nephrotic syndrome were pided into two types. Primary nephrotic syndrome type I: nephrotic syndrome with typical performance, accounting for nephrotic syndrome in children 5%, adults 20%. this type of glucocorticoid treatment, the prognosis is good; but often prone to relapse, recurrence, treatment also effective. Primary nephrotic syndrome type: besides the nephrotic syndrome and clinical manifestation, often accompanied by varying degrees of hematuria, hypertension, renal function damage. This type of glucocorticoid efficacy difference, generally inferior to I, the prognosis is poor.
The complications of nephrotic syndrome:
First: because a lot of protein loss, infection immune globulin decreased, and application of hormone drugs, patients with various infections, such as respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and sepsis, peritonitis and so on. In the application of glucocorticoid in the process and infection, symptoms are not typical, easily overlooked the influence of prognosis.
Second, high blood coagulation disorders: due to concentrated blood hypercoagulable state, easy to form vascular embolization, such as renal vein thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis, severe coronary artery, pulmonary vessels are involved. When renal vein thrombosis, patients often sudden pain, proteinuria, hematuria, renal function damage. Also slow since the sick.
Three, acute renal failure, mainly due to the large number of liquid into the interstitial space, the reduction in blood volume, renal ischemia, or renal vein thrombosis, leading to decreased glomerular filtration rate, develop into acute renal failure.