Acute nephritis is inflammation of glomerular immune after infection, often occurs in the cold, tonsillitis, acute pharyngitis or skin ulcer infection. Acute nephritis is a common disease in nephritis, also known as acute glomerulonephritis, the disease should be treated in time, if the treatment is not timely, may lead to serious complications.
Diagnostic criteria for acute nephritis:
1. Renal enlargement, kidney diameter lines are increased, especially in thick as obvious, so that the shape of the kidney caruncle, plump, spherical development.
2. Renal capsule is not clear, the outline of the boundary is not clear, blurred edges.
3. The renal parenchyma is thickened, the echo is diffusely enhanced, the spot is blurry, the renal cortex and renal medulla are not distinguished, the echo of the renal sinus is relatively diluted, and even the whole section is integrated, so the normal renal structure can not be displayed.
Acute nephritis examination:
1. Urine hematuria is an important observation of acute nephritis, or gross hematuria or microscopic hematuria, mostly red blood cells in the urine of severe degeneration, but the application of loop diuretics may temporarily non-renal deformation of red blood cells. In addition, visible red blood cell tube, suggesting that glomerular bleeding exudative inflammation is an important feature of acute nephritis. Urinary sediment is also common tubular epithelial cells, white blood cells, a large number of transparent and granular tube type.
2. RBC blood count and hemoglobin may be slightly lower, due to blood volume expansion, due to hemodilution. White blood cell count can be normal or increased, with the primary infection whether the continued existence of the focus.
3. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was decreased in different degrees, but the renal plasma flow was still normal, so the filtration fraction was decreased. Compared with the involvement of glomerular function, renal tubular function is relatively good, more able to maintain renal concentration. Common clinical transient azotemia, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine increased. Not limited to children with water, there may be a mild dilution of hyponatremia. In addition sick children can also have hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis. Plasma protein may be slightly decreased due to hemodilution, proteinuria reached the level of nephropathy, serum albumin decreased significantly, and may be associated with a degree of hyperlipidemia.