Acute glomerulonephritis (referred to as acute nephritis) is caused by the immune response to diffuse glomerular damage, most of which are acute glomerulonephritis after streptococcal infection. It is a group of syndromes characterized by acute episodes of hematuria, proteinuria, edema, hypertension, or with occasional azotemia, known as acute nephritic syndrome, and more common in children and adolescents.
Etiology: Not yet clear, some factors may be known to cause acute glomerulonephritis. The most common is the β-type hemolytic chain ball group, followed by other pathogens such as staphylococcus, pneumococcus, Salmonella typhi, diphtheria bacillus and viruses, malaria parasites; another deoxyribonucleic acid antigen, tumor antigen, thyroid Protein antigens can cause glomerulonephritis. But patients with acute nephritis, can not find pathogenic factors.
Pathology: Most patients with glomerular endothelial cells, mesangial cells diffuse acute proliferation, a few to oozing lesions, and a small part of the mesangial, capillary type lesions (membrane-proliferative lesions), severe Hyperplasia of the mesangial can be pided into lobular glomeruli. Occasional balloon crescent formation. Electron microscopy showed subcutaneous electron dense material was hump-like deposition, the characteristics of the disease. But this change disappeared faster, after three months of onset is not easy to see, these deposits are mostly on the epithelial side and sometimes under the endothelium. Immunofluorescence examination, containing immunoglobulin, mainly igg, igm, iga can also be seen, but also can have c3 deposition, there are fashionable to see streptococcal antigen in the mesangial area sediments.
Pathogenesis: When the hemolytic streptococcus infection, the streptococcus as an antigen to stimulate the body b lymphocytes produce the corresponding antibodies; when the antigen slightly more than the antibody can form a soluble circulating immune complex, and deposited in the glomerular endothelium caused by Nephritis. Some people think that streptococcal membrane antigen and glomerular basement membrane between the cross-antigen reactivity, that is, the corresponding antibodies to the nucleus membrane, can also be combined with the glomerular basement membrane, thus activating the complement system, trapping white blood cells, Promote the release of platelet factor 3 and oxygen free radicals, so that glomerular diffuse inflammation.