Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a leading cause of kidney failure in adults and the main cause of nephrotic syndrome. Some studies shown that FSGS is one of the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children. Generally speaking, it is a progressive form of kidney disease. It may cause proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome with or without renal insufficiency.
The most common clinical performance of FSGS is nephrotic syndrome, characterized by generalized edema, massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia. However, the natural history of FSGS is variable and can range from edema that is difficult to manage, to proteinuria that is refractory to corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, to worsening hypertension and a progressive loss of renal function.
Findings for examination of patients with FSGS:
Abdominal pain: Common in children; may be a sign of peritonitis
Ulcerations and infections in dependent regions
Severe hypertension: Commonly seen in black patients, especially those with renal insufficiency
Tests for FSGS
Urinalysis: Large amounts of protein; hyaline and broad waxy casts
Serum creatinine concentration or creatinine clearance: Usually within reference range
Albumin levels: Generally low
Lipid studies: Hyperlipidemia
Ways to deal with FSGS
Reduce lipid levels
Reduce daily salt and protein intake
Nephrotic syndrome: Maintain adequate nutrition, minimize/eliminate proteinuria, prevent complications from edema
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