The diagnosis of kidney stones involves three aspects: ① the diagnosis of stones itself, including its location, volume, number and shape; ②the diagnosis of complications of kidney stones, including urinary tract infection, degree of resistance and renal damage; ③Evaluation of the cause of kidney stone.

How to diagnose kidney stones?

1. Medical history.Medical history is very helpful in the diagnosis of kidney stones. Low back pain and hematuria have appeared when the first consideration should be kidney stones. Such as urine sand out of the basic can be diagnosed. In order to identify the cause of stones, patients should be asked in detail about the diet, medication history, family history, infection history.

2. Laboratory tests can not only be used to assist in the diagnosis of stones, to understand renal function, it is also the main method to analyze the cause of stone and evaluate the risk of recurrence.

(1) Urine examination.Red blood cells in urine is common, it is an important basis of indicating stones; white blood cells show the presence of urinary tract infection; crystallization of urine is more common in the renal colicstage of attack, by observing the crystal form can be inferred stone composition; urine pH often because of stones ingredients are different and bound; culture of bacteria can specify the type of bacteria, for the selection of antibiotics to provide a reference.

(2) Blood test items include: 95, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chlorine, uric acid, carbon dioxide binding capacity, urea nitrogen, creatinine, lower labor hormone (PTH) and so on. Thyroid gland hyperthyroidism were elevated blood calcium, decreased blood phosphorus, PTH increased 'renal tubular acidosis were often elevated blood chloride, blood potassium and carbon dioxide binding decreased; wind and uric acid stones were uric acid increased; urea nitrogen and creatinine are clinically assessed for indicators of total renal function.

(3) Analysis of stone.Analysis of stone ingredient is the method for determining the nature of stones, it is also an important basis for the establishment of stone preventive measures and the selection of dissolve stone drugs, in addition, it also helps to reduce the scope of metabolic assessment of stones. Stone specimens can be obtained by surgery,spall stone and self discharge. In the commonly used analytical method, the polarizing microscope method can be used to directly identify the crystal composition and structure of the stone; infrared light grammar can directly determine the composition of stones; chemical qualitative method is only the determination of stone composition of the atomic group and the atom for reference. Stone analysis generally need to use the two methods in combination, learn from each other, in order to make the signing results more accurate and complete.