First, urine abnormalities
1, oliguria and anuria, oliguria refers to 24 hour urine volume less than 400ml per hour or less than 17ml. without urine means 24 hours urine volume less than 50 100ml. oliguria and anuria most associated with renal failure.
2, more than 24 hours urine: urine more than 3000ml or every minute is greater than 2ml. urine water intake, renal tubules and renal interstitial lesions, renal drainage increased in vivo and certain substances (such as glucose) excretion from urine too much.
3, nocturia: refers to the night (6 point 6 point night morning) more than half of the amount of urine urine all day long volume. And most of the renal dysfunction, heart failure patients may have nocturia, some mental factors can also cause. But only the number and amount of urine urine does not increase, does not belong to the category of nocturia.
1 abnormal urination, frequent urination, urgency, dysuria micturition refers to: increased urination (normal average day Micturition in 4 - 6, 0 - 2) at night. A urinary urgency means to urinate or just drained urine was in a hurry to row, often anxious and unable to control urination. The urethra during urination produces pain or burning sensation. These three symptoms coexist is characterized by inflammation of the urinary system.
2, urinary retention: urination disorders cause urine bladder to stay in discharge. And relevant part of the urethra and complete obstruction, and certain drugs can also cause neurological diseases.
3, urinary incontinence: refers to the involuntary urine from the urethra overflow. Visible on the lower urinary tract anatomical or functional abnormalities of God the bladder.
1 renal colic pain: back pain, sudden onset, often to the lower abdomen, inner thighs and other parts of the vulva and radiation, intermittent severe angina pectoris. Often the ureter stones, blood or tissue necrosis caused by obstruction.
2, pain and pain of blunt kidney area: urinary system diseases caused by the Renal pain include:
1) renal swelling traction supporting renal capsule caused, such as acute nephritis, acute pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis, polycystic kidney, kidney, kidney prolapse and.
2) kidney disease caused by lumbago: such as renal abscess, renal infarction complicated with renal inflammation, renal cyst rupture and perirenal hematoma. But that is caused by many pain, spinal and spinal soft tissue diseases of pancreas, gallbladder, stomach pain often radiates to the waist.
edema of the kidney is the main organ of the body to remove water, when the kidney disease, resulting in the water can not be discharged in vitro, retention in the body, called for renal edema edema can be. Light weight, light had no visible swelling, only increased body weight (recessive edema) or in the early morning eyelid slightly swelling. Severe systemic edema, even chest, ascites, weight tens of kilograms (severe edema). The swelling of the reasons are as following
1.: when renal disease, kidney filtration area, lower permeability, and reduce blood flow, but the kidney reabsorption function intact, resulting in damage to the body's immune oliguria.
2. kidney disease causes systemic capillary wall permeability increased, induced by plasma in water infiltration to
3. kidney tissue space. When the disease, reduced renal blood flow, renal parenchyma is blood, increased renin secretion, increased aldosterone secretion via the renin - angiotensin role of adrenal cortex, leading to renal tubular reabsorption of water, and the retention of sodium.
4. kidney disease, often have a lot of proteinuria, if a long time can cause problems in vivo protein formation, hypoproteinemia, the plasma colloid osmotic pressure decreased extracellular fluid retention in tissues, causing edema. In addition, hypoproteinemia can also cause effectively reduced blood volume, resulting in secondary aldehyde Increased secretion of testosterone and antidiuretic hormone, renal reabsorption of water and sodium increased, causing edema.